Object-oriented CSS is awesome. But littering your markup with non-semantic classes is not awesome. Those classes sprinkled all over your HTML are going to change, and that’s not gonna be fun. But if you combine OOCSS and Sass you get the best of both worlds: modular CSS without bloated, hard-to-maintain HTML.

OOCSS leads to hard-to-maintain HTML.

First off, quick disclaimer, a bunch of you probably freaked out the second you read “non-semantic”. Here’s the thing, I don’t actually care about them being non-semantic. I care about what that means for upkeep. Non-semantic classes aren’t needed to describe a component, which means they will change.

The only way to make modules in plain CSS is to define non-semantic classes. (For now.) Then you apply those classes to all of your HTML elements. That’s the OOCSS way of approaching modules. But it comes with big problems:

  1. I don’t want to have to trawl through HTML every time I flip-flop on styling decisions. I work at a startup—things change all the time.

  2. I don’t even have access to some of the DOM elements I would need to add classes to! If you’re using Javascript components to render elements on your page, then you can’t add classes to elements inside the component. (Unless you do some janky, unspeakable things.)

Besides the unmaintainable HTML, everything else about OOCSS is spot on. Abstracting repetition into modules is the only way to keep CSS maintainable on large projects. So how do we get the benefits without the drawbacks?

OOSass to the rescue!

Combining OOCSS and Sass gives you super powers. The @extend directive in Sass lets you inherit styles from another selector without duplicating everything like a @mixin. Which is sweet, but even @extend calls can cause code bloat if you nest them or use them with nested selectors.

Luckily Sass 3.2 added a feature called placeholders. Placeholders are selectors that output nothing unless they are extended. Here’s what a placeholder looks like:

  border-top: 1px solid black

  @extend %separator

  @extend %separator

That would generate the following CSS:

.separator {
  border-top: 1px solid black;

Placeholders don’t have the code bloat problems that mixins or regular @extend calls have. That makes placeholders perfect for creating non-semantic CSS modules. I call these modules “patterns”. They are little bits of style that you can mix and match throughout your stylesheets.

I’ll show you a real use case.

Take the golden child of OOCSS as an example: the .media module. You probably want to apply the .media module to a bunch of your components: .status, .profile, etc.

Thing is, you don’t want to have to repeat .media all over your HTML. Especially because you’re already going to be repeating .status and .profile. That’s where using placeholders makes things awesomely DRY. Here’s our %media pattern:

  overflow: hidden
    float: left
    overflow: hidden

Now instead of having to repeat .media on all of your elements, you just extend the %media pattern anywhere you want to use it:

  @extend %media
  // Status-specific styles here...

  @extend %media
  // Profile-specific styles here...

This means that in your HTML you only need to add the semantic classes: .status and .profile—the ones you don’t mind typing because without them all you have is an <article> element.

You also get flexibility. If you decide to change the way statuses look so that the .media module no longer applies, just remove that @extend call and your done! No combing through your HTML to remove .media classes.

Sharp eyes might have noticed that I used a slightly modified version of the .media module. That goes back to not having access to the DOM when using Javascript components…

OOSass makes styling Javascript components easy.

The biggest problem I have with OOCSS is it assumes you have complete control over the DOM and can add classes to it. That’s not always true! When you’re rendering Javascript components (or using someone else’s), you can only touch the top-most element of the component.

If you attach a DropdownView to your .user-dropdown element, you could add a .media class to .user-dropdown. But there’s no way to add classes to the dropdown’s .button or any of its .menu-item‘s because you have no control over the DOM inside that component.

With Sass placeholders, that’s not a problem:

  // Normal styles for every dropdown...

  // Extra styles for user-specific dropdowns...
    @extend %media

You’d have to do uncouth things to get that to work with pure CSS classes: reaching into components and destroying their encapsulation, or using some sort of horrific string-based className API. But with Sass patterns you can easily augment DOM elements that you have no direct control of.

Okay, okay, get to the examples!

I love reading through other people’s CSS patterns, so I figured I’d share some of my own. Here are some of the patterns I use all over Segment:


This is an Apple-style separator, creating a lip above the content underneath it. (Notice I also have %reversed-lip for handling a lip in the opposite direction.)

  clear: both
  display: block
  height: 5px
  background: url('/public/images/patterns/lip/lip.png') no-repeat
  background-size: 100% 100%

  @extend %lip
  background-image: url('/public/images/patterns/lip/reversed-lip.png')


This just adds two lips to the top and bottom of an element to make it feel like it is recessed into the area around it.

  position: relative
  overflow: hidden

    content: ''
    position: absolute
    left: 0
    right: 0
    @extend %lip
    top: 0
    @extend %reversed-lip
    bottom: 0


A very simple, rounded-corner box. These are the backbone for all of the colored planes on Segment.

  box-shadow: 0 2px 5px rgba($black, .1)
  border-radius: $border-radius-medium

  @extend %plane
  background-color: $white

  @extend %plane
  background-color: $off-white



You know those borders people make by putting a black line and a white line together and making them translucent? I call that a seam.

  clear: both
  display: block
  height: 0px
  border-top: 1px solid rgba($black, .12)
  border-bottom: 1px solid rgba($white, .15)


Similar to a valley, this is just a depression in the page, for things like <code> samples. (It’s actually really similar to the code samples on this blog.)

  box-shadow: inset 0 1px 5px rgba($black, .14)
  border-radius: $border-radius-medium

  @extend %well
  background-color: $off-white

  @extend %well
  background-color: $light-gray


Now it’s your turn.

Hopefully that gives you a good idea what patterns can be and how to use them in your CSS components. They’re everywhere.

They should only do one thing, and they should do it well. Harry Roberts mentions that you should keep their names vague and non-semantic. That forces you to make them abstract so that you can use them all over the place. And you can always build patterns on top of each other, like I’ve done in the valley example.

If you have similar patterns of your own, I’d love to see ‘em!